Revitalising Indigenous languages.

How to recreate a lost generation.

 

Marja-Liisa Olthuis – Suvi Kivelä – Tove Skutnabb-Kangas

 

Bristol: Multilingual Matters

Series Linguistic Diversity and Language Rights

http://www.multilingual-matters.com/results.asp?m=11&dc=17&mw=1&sqf=/7:%27linguistic%20diversity%20and%20language%20rights%27&st_01=ref_no&sf_01=keyword

 

In press; expected publishing date February 2013

 

 

 

The book tells the story of the Indigenous Aanaar Saami language (around 350 speakers) and cultural revitalisation in Lapland in Finland. It offers a new language revitalisation method that can be used with Indigenous and minority languages, especially in cases where the native language has been lost among working-age people, and where most of the native speakers are elders. The book gives practical examples as well as a theoretical frame of reference for how to plan, organise and implement an intensive language programme for adults who already have a professional training. This is to ensure the continuation of the language to future generations, also in language nests and the school. It is the first time that a process of revitalisation of a very small language has been systematically described from the beginning; it is a small-scale success story. The book finishes with self-reflection and cautious recommendations for Indigenous peoples and minorities who want to revive or revitalise their languages.

 

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Table of Contents

Acknowledgements................................................................................................................

vii

Chapter 1. Introduction........................................................................................................

1

Chapter 2. How did the CASLE project start? ............................................................

8

2.1. Planner’s view .................................................................................................................

8

2.1.1. The start .........................................................................................................................

8

2.1.2. Creating a language consulting unit ..................................................................

12

2.1.3. The challenge of CASLE: how to reclaim a lost working age adult

            generation? ..................................................................................................................

 

13

2.2. An outsider’s view from Tove ..................................................................................

16

2.3. A student view from Suvi ...........................................................................................

19

Chapter 3. Aanaar Saami – a small Saami language ................................................

26

3.1. Facts about the Saami languages ............................................................................

26

3.2. Aanaar Saami in its surroundings ..........................................................................

26

3.3. Defining the Saami and identifying speakers ....................................................

28

3.4. AS use and competence by age group ..................................................................

32

3.5. Reasons for the decline of AS ...................................................................................

34

Chapter 4. The CASLE revitalisation method ............................................................

37

4.1. Background for the CASLE model ..........................................................................

37

4.2. The local Indigenous language as a second or ‘foreign’ language .......

38

4.2.1. Choosing to teach the local language as a second or ‘foreign’

            language ......................................................................................................................

 

38

4.2.2. Models for educating L2-speaking professionals as

            languagetransmitters ..............................................................................................

 

39

4.3. The CASLE model of L2 learning and teaching .................................................

41

4.4. Learning the target language from elderly Masters .......................................

42

4.4.1. Leanne Hinton’s Master-Apprentice programme ........................................

43

4.4.2. Documenting earlier individual Aanaar Saami Master-Apprentice

           ‘training’ experiences ...............................................................................................

 

46

4.4.3. Comparing M-A methods: Hinton, Laitinen and CASLE ............................

50

4.5. Total immersion programmes .................................................................................

50

4.5.1. Informal short-term community-based non-school programmes ......

51

4.5.2. The language nest ......................................................................................................

51

4.5.3. Some remarks concerning Saami language nest activities ......................

55

4.6. Partial immersion and bilingual programmes    .......................................

56

4.7. Language documentation ..........................................................................................

57

Chapter 5. CASLE YEAR .......................................................................................................

60

5.1. The CASLE study programme 2009 to 2010 .....................................................

60

5.2. Language lessons building on the university AS study programme .......

60

5.2.1. Classroom teaching – planner’s view ...............................................................

60

5.2.2. Classroom teaching – Suvi’s student view ......................................................

62

5.3. Cultural group activities: students in the field .................................................

73

5.3.1. Planner’s view .............................................................................................................

73

5.3.2. Diving into the culture – student view .............................................................

74

5.3.3. Fish as highest in a holy trinity ............................................................................

76

5.3.4. Hoof soup and sausages ..........................................................................................

80

5.3.5. Films and magazines ................................................................................................

84

5.4. Personal language guidance: Master-Apprentice training and

       practical training at Aanaar Saami workplaces .............................................

 

85

5.4.1. Introduction .................................................................................................................

85

5.4.2. Master-Apprentice training ...................................................................................

86

5.5. Aanaar Saami at their workplaces .........................................................................

103

5.5.1. Planning and organizing .........................................................................................

103

5.5.2. The Aanaar primary school ...................................................................................

105

5.5.3. Kielâpiervâl – The Language nest .......................................................................

107

5.5.4. Saami Radio ..................................................................................................................

109

5.5.5. Kotus – Instutute for the languages of Finland .............................................

111

5.5.6. Work experience (student free choice) and ’evaluation’ ..........................

112

Chapter 6. Complementary Aanaar Saami Language Education as a

                     project – CASLE 2009–2010 ......................................................................

 

115

6.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................................

115

6.2. Starting CASLE: The preliminary period .............................................................

115

6.3. The realisation period .................................................................................................

118

6.3.1. The initiation stage ...................................................................................................

118

6.3.2. The delivery stage .....................................................................................................

128

6.3.3. Closing ............................................................................................................................

129

6.4. Tracing the critical components of the project .................................................

130

Chapter 7. What has CASLE achieved? What does the future hold? ................

143

7.1. Introduction .....................................................................................................................

143

7.2. Language nests ...............................................................................................................

143

7.3. Schools ...............................................................................................................................

145

7.3.1. How did CASLE influence the schools? ............................................................

145

7.3.2. Funding the study materials .................................................................................

147

7.3.3. New study materials produced by CASLE professionals ..........................

148

7.4. Aanaar Saami revitalisation and teaching at the University .......................

149

7.5. Aanaar Saami at the Saami Education Institute ...............................................

152

7.6. Aanaar Saami community activities ......................................................................

152

7.7. Aanaar Saami in church ..............................................................................................

154

7.8. CASLE graduates at work in the Aanaar Saami community .......................

155

7.9. The elder Aanaar Saami language Masters after CASLE ..............................

160

7.10. How threatened is the Aanaar Saami language since CASLE? ................

161

7.11. The community’s degree of openness towards second

         language speakers ...................................................................................................

 

163

7.12. Aanaar Saami language on the Internet ............................................................

163

7.13. Back to worldwide debates and the future .....................................................

164

7.13.1. Colonialism continues – example Arizona ...................................................

164

7.13.2. Can others learn from the Finnish experience? .........................................

167

7.13.3. Land rights or linguistic and cultural rights – or both? ..........................

169

7.13.4. Who is responsible? ...............................................................................................

172

7.13.5. The economics of language maintenance and revitalisation –

              markets in globalisation ......................................................................................

 

175

7.13.6. To conclude: Academic freedom to choose .................................................

180

Info Box 1. Criticism of Sweden’s current minority policies and practices ..

185

Info Box 2. Language endangerment ............................................................................

186

Info Box 3. The situation of the world’s languages ..................................................

188

Info Box 4. Linguistic and cultural genocide in education ...................................

189

Info Box 5. Ethnic identity and language .....................................................................

195

Info Box 6. Indigenous views ............................................................................................

203

Info Box 7. Language nests .................................................................................................

208

Info Box 8. Immersion programmes ..............................................................................

210

Info Box 9. Mother tongue definitions ..........................................................................

216

Info Box 10. Visions for Saami revitalisation, Finland ...........................................

219

Info Box 11. Ann-Helén Laestadius – a personal example from

                     northern Sweden ..............................................................................

 

222

Info Box 12. Advice from revitalisation in Hawai’i       ....................................

223

Info Box 13. Saami media in Finland .............................................................................

228

Info Box 14. Language rights and right to education .............................................

233

Info Box 15. Lost or stolen generations ........................................................................

237

Info Box 16. Third language learning ............................................................................

243

Info Box 17. Anarâškielâ servi [the Aanaar Saami Association] ........................

244

Info Box 18. The Saami language and traditional knowledge ............................

246

REFERENCES ...........................................................................................................................

250

 

 

 

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